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Computer Basic & Fundamentals!


Computer Basic and Fundamentals!

The computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from users and processes it under a set of instruction (program) control, produces results, and stores it for future use.

Today’s world is information that is the world, and everyone has become very important to know about computers. The computer is an electronic data processing device, which acquires data input, processes data input, and outputs output in a required format.

The function of a Computer:

The computer is an electronic device that acquires data, processes data and generates output and stores this data.

Output information is generated from a computer’s concept input data.

Functionalities of a Computer
Understand the computer’s input-process-output concept as follows-


Accepts computer input data from input devices such as keyboards. Anything can be input data character, word, text, sound, image, document, etc.


The computer processes the input data. For this, the user gives some actions on the data using the instructions or program provided.

This action can be done in arithmetic or logical calculation, editing, modification of the document, and so on.

During processing, data, instruction, and output are stored temporarily in the main memory of the computer.


The results generated after processing the data are output only. It can be output text, sound, image, document, etc.

The computer monitor has an output display where it goes to softcopy, prints from the printer, where it goes hardcopy.


Input data, instruction, and output are stored in secondary storage devices like permanent discs or tape. This store data can be retrieved later, whenever necessary.

Components of Computer Hardware:

There are three main components in computer system hardware –

  • Input / Output (I / O) Unit
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Memory Unit

Components of Computer Hardware

Input / Output Unit

The user interacts with the I / O unit through the device. Input unit exits data from a user and receives processed data to processed data which is the information for users.

Computers understand the language of binary (0 and 1), which we can not understand. Therefore, input units can understand the data received from the user by converting such forms. Similarly, the output unit converts the output into a form that the user can understand.

Common input devices are keyboards and mouse whereas common output devices have monitors and printers.

Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU) controls, coordinates and supervises the operation of the computer. This is responsible for the processing of input data. The CPU includes Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU).

ALU does all the arithmetic and logic operations on input data.

The CU controls the overall operation of the computer, which means it checks the execution sequence of the instruction, and controls and coordinates the overall function of the computer unit.

In addition, memory units store the results of data, instruction, address, and calculation in the CPU during data processing. Where does this memory also go to the main memory or primary memory of a computer?

The input data brought to this main memory before processing. Instructions required for data processing and any intermediate results are also stored in main memory. The output store in memory before transfer to the output device.

The CPU can work with store information in main memory. Another type of storage unit also known the computer’s secondary memory. Data, program, and output store in the computer’s storage unit permanently. Secondary storage includes hard disks, optical discs, and magnetic tapes.

Computers Uses:

Due to high speed, diligence, accuracy, reliability, and varsity in computers, it has become an integral part of our business as well as the business organization.

In modern human life, computers have become an essential part. Since the invention of PC, their computing power increased and the size decreased.

Due to the widespread use of computers in every field, in today’s world life without PC will be unimaginable. They made human life better and happier. PC use in different areas of work There are many engineers, architects, jewelers, and filmmakers use computers to design all.

Teachers, writers and most of the office workers use computers for research, word processing and emailing. Small businesses can use computers as a point of sale and keep the general record.

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